Category Archives: Ecological Modelling

Simply States


In the next release of Bio7 there will be no plant database anymore. This will definitely simplify the design of cellular automata or discrete individual based models for other purposes than plant simulations.
The plant database always suggested that Bio7 is just for plant simulations which was never the case. By removing the plant database and the object matrix it will now be easier to create states and access their values. Only one array is now needed for the calculations. In addition i also removed the soil perspective. Now soil layers can be created with ImageJ and with float values. Examples will be available with the next release. Furthermore the actice ImageJ layer can be visualized together with the 3d grid view (as known from the soil layers). The purpose of this changes is to simplify the development of a broader spectrum of ecological models and the change of perception of Bio7 as it should be as a general development environment for ecological modeling.


Swarm Intelligence


This popular video on YouTube shows in a fascinating way how a swarm builts a pattern from individuals which react on the behaviour of their local environment.



Here you can find a swarm simulation, links for this topic and explanations by Craig Reynolds:

Online Article:

Selected Articles:

Reynolds, Craig (1987), “Flocks, herds and schools: A distributed behavioral model.”, SIGGRAPH ’87: Proceedings of the 14th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques (Association for Computing Machinery): 25–34.

Grimm, V. 1999. Ten years of individual-based modelling in ecology: what have we learned and what could we learn in the future? Ecological Modelling 115:129-148.

DeAngelis, D.L. & W.M. Mooij. 2005 Individual-based modeling of ecological and evolutionary processes. Annual Reviews in Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 36: 147-168.

Selected Books:

Grimm, V., Railsback, S. F. (2005) Individual-based modeling and ecology Princeton series in theoretical and computational biology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 428 S.

Grimm, V. (2008) Individual-based models. In: Jorgensen, S. E., Fath, B. D. (Hrsg.): Ecological Models. Encyclopedia of ecology Vol. 3, Elsevier, Amsterdam, S. 1959-1968.